- Gum or gingival is the tissue that is attached and surrounds the neck of the teeth and adjacent alveolar bone.
- Sometimes due to certain conditions such as poor oral hygiene, bad habits such as smoking, certain medications, diseases such as cancer and hormonal changes, there might be profound effect on gums leading to gum diseases. Gum (periodontal) diseases are treated in a variety of ways depending on the stage of disease. These treatments may range from non-surgical therapies to surgical therapies. Non-surgical approaches control the growth of bacteria, whereas surgical procedures restore the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth.
NON-SURGICAL TREATMENTS INCLUDE:
Professional dental cleaning (Conventional/Laser):
This includes removal of plaque and tartar that build up and harden on the tooth surface. If there are some signs of gum disease, professional dental cleaning is recommended more than twice a year.
Scaling and root planning (Conventional/Laser):
This is deep-cleaning that is done under local anesthesia. Hardened plaque and tartar are scraped away from above and below the gum line. Also rough spots on the tooth root are made smooth, leading to removal of bacteria, providing a clean surface for the gums to reattach to the teeth.
SURGICAL THERAPIES INCLUDE:
Flap surgery/pocket reduction surgery (Conventional/Laser):
This procedure involves the gums being lifted back and tartar being removed, with the irregular surfaces of the damaged bone being further smoothed. The gums are then replaced so that the tissue fits snugly around the tooth.
Crown lengthening is a procedure that is performed to remove excessive gum display, in turn increasing the amount of tooth that is visible. This can be performed by either removal of gum tissue (gingivectomy), making an incision in the gums to create a flap of tissue and then repositioning the flap toward the root of the tooth and using stitches to keep it in place as it heals (apically repositioned flap surgery) and moving the tooth to the desired location on the gum line (surgical extrusion).
Bone grafts are fragments of bone, synthetic bone, or donated bone that is placed in areas destroyed by periodontal disease. This restores the attachment of the teeth to the bone.
Soft tissue grafts:
This procedure strengthens gums or fills places where gums have undergone recession.
Guided tissue regeneration:
This procedure is performed when the bone supporting teeth gets destroyed. This procedure stimulates both the bone, as well as gum tissue growth. Done in combination with flap surgery, this keeps the gum tissue from growing into the area where the bone should be, allowing the bone and connective tissue to regrow and better support the teeth.
Bone surgery smoothes the shallow craters in the bone, which occur due to moderate and advanced bone loss. Following flap surgery, the bone around the tooth is reshaped to decrease the craters, making it harder for bacteria to collect and grow.